Child-rearing practices can either negatively or positively influence the psychosocial outcomes of their children. Negative psychological outcomes such as total difficulties can result in peer relationship problem, hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, and conduct problem among children. Thus, this study aims to examine the relations between parental autonomy support and coercion with total difficulties of children in Malaysia. As respondents of this study, a total of 502 children aged between 9 and 12 years were recruited using a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling technique. The descriptive analysis found that 8.4% of respondents experienced an abnormal level of total difficulties score that can result in mental disorder. The results indicated that children who perceived a higher level of autonomy support from parents experienced a lower level of total difficulties. In contrast, children who perceived their parents as coercive reported more total difficulties. The results indicated that autonomy support from parents is vital in protecting their children during middle childhood from behavioral, emotional, and peer relationship difficulties. Parental coercion tends to intensify total difficulties. Thus, to help their children in mitigating the performance of total difficulties, parents should be empowered with positive parenting skills.

Bahasa Abstract

Praktik membesarkan anak-anak dapat mempengaruhi perkembangan psikososial anak-anak baik secara positif maupun negatif. Pengaruh psikologis negatif seperti kesulitan tingkah laku umum anak-anak dapat mengakibatkan timbulnya masalah hubungan dengan rekan sebaya, hiperaktivitas, gejala emosi, dan kenakalan pada anak. Oleh karena itu, studi ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan antara dukungan otonomi orangtua (parental autonomy support), koersi dan kesulitan tingkah laku umum pada anak di Malaysia. Responden adalah 502 anak yang berusia antara 9 dan 12 tahun yang direkrut dengan teknik pengambilan sampel multistage proportionate-to-size. Hasil analisis deskriptif menunjukkan bahwa 8,4% responden mengalami tingkat kesulitan tingkah laku umum yang tinggi yang bisa mengakibatkan gangguan mental. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak yang menerima tingkat dukungan otonomi orang tua (parental autonomy support) yang tinggi memiliki tingkat kesulitan tingkah laku umum yang lebih rendah. Sebaliknya, anak-anak yang mempersepsikan orang tuanya sebagai koersif mengalami lebih banyak kesulitan tingkah laku umum. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa dukungan otonomi orang tua (parental autonomy support) sangat penting dalam melindungi anak-anak yang berada dalam tahap tengah perkembangan anak-anak untuk menjauhi masalah tingkah laku, emosi, dan hubungan rekan sebaya. Orang tua yang koersif dapat meningkatkan kesulitan tingkah laku umum pada anak. Oleh karena itu, orang tua harus didukung untuk memiliki keterampilan pengasuhan yang positif agar dapat mengurangi dampak dari kesulitan tingkah laku umum anak-anak mereka.


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