Selective exposure to political news in social media in Indonesia is escalating along with the increasing polarization of Indonesian people. This research aims to investigate: 1) differences in selective exposure to fake news content among incumbent and opposition supporters; 2) the association between critical thinking ability and partisans’ selective exposure. Repeated measures design was employed as the experiment design. Respondents were student activists of extra-campus organizations with particular political ideologies, who have pro-incumbent or pro-opposition preference. Seventy-one respondents were recruited, consisting of 34 incumbent (Jokowi) supporters and 37 opposition (Prabowo) supporters. Data was analyzed using independent t-test, a paired sample t-test, and correlational analysis. Results show that the opposition side was more inclined to demonstrate selective exposure by believing in fake news about their political enemy, compared to the incumbent supporters. This is shown by their tendency to believe and spread discrediting news about their political opponents rather than doing so for news which discredits their side. No association between critical thinking and partisan selective exposure was found. The implication of these results is that the critical point in debiasing is not necessarily predicated merely on analytical thinking ability but might also rest on one’s ability to think open-mindedly.

Bahasa Abstract

Fenomena terjadinya selective exposure atas berita-berita politik di media sosial di Indonesia semakin menguat seiring tajamnya polarisasi di antara masyarakat di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi: 1) perbedaan selective exposure atas konten berita palsu pada pendukung presiden petahana dan oposisi; 2) asosiasi antara kemampuan berpikir kritis dengan selective exposure pada partisan pendukung kandidat presiden. Repeated measures design digunakan sebagai desain eksperimen. Responden merupakan aktivis organisasi mahasiswa ekstra kampus yang memiliki ideologi politik tertentu dan memiliki preferensi pro terhadap petahana atau pro terhadap oposisi. Didapatkan 71 responden yang terdiri dari 34 pendukung petahana (Jokowi) dan 37 pendukung oposisi (Prabowo). Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan independent t-test, paired sample t-test, dan analisis korelasi. Hasil analisis data mengindikasikan pendukung oposisi cenderung menunjukkan adanya selective exposure dengan mempercayai berita palsu atas lawan politik dibandingkan pada kubu pendukung petahana. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tendensi untuk percaya dan menyebarkan berita yang mendiskreditkan lawan politiknya dibandingkan dengan berita yang mendiskreditkan kubu yang didukungnya. Tidak terdapat asosiasi antara berpikir kritis dengan selective exposure pada partisan. Implikasi hasil ini adalah titik kritis pada debiasing bukan semata pada kemampuan berpikir analitik namun dimungkinkan pada kemampuan berpikir secara lebih terbuka.



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