A preliminary research in 2012 indicated that the prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) among children under-five in Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) Province, Indonesia, was related to high concentration of indoor PM10 concentration from the burning of wood in simple stoves in the traditional huts (Ume Kbubu). Out of the data obtained, a CEGs action research was done in 2013. Smoke produced from wood burning stoves inside the Ume Kbubu tends to flow up higher into the air in the confined room of the traditional huts. An application of partition and chimney upon the stoves was expected to drive the smoke to the upper part of the hut to mitigate the exposure to indoor smoke pollution for the inhabitants of the huts. Engaging the local community, an action-research using an observational cross-sectional data collection was done in 3 Sub-districts of Nunkolo, Oinlasi, and Kuanfatu, District of Timor Tengah Selatan, NTT. The action-research combined the use of a questionnaire, the measurement of the level of indoor air pollution by examining the PM10 and CO concentrations, the delivery of a general health education program, and the application of a room-partition and a chimney in each of Ume Kbubu selected. A higher concentration of PM10 (9.69 ± 8.8 ppm) was found inside the traditional huts at the height of 1½ meter as compared to 4.39 ± 5.82 ppm at the height of ½ meter examination points. This a sign that the smoke tends to concentrate on the higher level of a room. A significant health risks level of CO (86.2 ± 53.42 ppm) were also found. By driving the smoke through the application of partition and chimney upon the stove in the traditional huts the research found a prospective effective measure to control indoor air pollution in reducing the exposure of the inhabitants from smoke in the traditional huts. From the questionnaire, it was found that water collection was also a burden for the household members. Conclusion: The application of chimney and room-partition gave a promising improvement in the effort to mitigate the exposure of the inhabitant from the indoor air pollution in the traditional huts of Timor Tengah Selatan.
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